Stanisław KowalczykCorresponding author

Freedom and Types of its Deformation

4 – 1999, pages 73-89
Date of online publication: 30 November 2020
Date of publication: 30 November 1999


Freedom appears in the very centre of human existence: it constitutes its „heart", sanctuary, indispensible source of dignity, and mystery. Freedom makes man, homo sapiens, both a subject and a person. The history of humankind is a history of an unceasing struggle to conquer and widen the borders of its freedom, although often it is also a history of the betrayal of freedom, of enslaving others, or of an escape from freedom^. Freedom is a foundation of man's activity, determining its purposefulness. It offers man a possibility of self-determination, internal development, though also of self-destruction. There are three main types of freedom: personalistic, individualistic and collectivistic.

Cite this article

Kowalczyk, Stanisław. "Freedom and Types of its Deformation." Forum Philosophicum 4 (1999): 73–89. doi:10.35765/forphil.1999.0401.4.