Jolanta KoszteynCorresponding author and Piotr LenartowiczCorresponding author

Biological adaptation: dependence or independence from environment?

2 – 1997, pages 71-102
Date of online publication: 30 November 2020
Date of publication: 30 November 1997


Since more than hundred years the attempts to explain biological adaptations constitute the main current of evolutionary thinking. In 1901 C. LI. Morgan wrote: „The doctrine of evolution has rendered the study of adaptation of scientific importance. Before that doctrine was formulated, natural adaptations formed part of the mystery of special creation, and played a great role in natural theology through the use of the argument from 'design in nature’". The modem doctrine of biology stresses the importance of the environment in „shaping" the inner properties of every living being. This means an obvious although tacit refusal to assume or recognize any single, integrated agent in the origin of main functional biological traits and in the genesis of new kinds of life. The role ascribed to random mutations, and to „pressures of the environment" is just one aspect of the neodarwinian theory. Another aspect of this doctrine is the widespread conviction that all phenomena of life are a natural, both random and necessary result of interactions between constantly changing material objects.

Cite this article

Koszteyn, Jolanta, Lenartowicz, Piotr. "Biological adaptation: dependence or independence from environment?" Forum Philosophicum 2 (1997): 71–102. doi:10.35765/forphil.1997.0201.6.