Paul DumouchelCorresponding author

Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise

24/2 – Fall 2019, pages 241-258
Date of online publication: 20 December 2019
Date of publication: 20 December 2019


The idea of artificial intelligence implies the existence of a form of intelligence that is “natural,” or at least not artificial. The problem is that intelligence, whether “natural” or “artificial,” is not well defined: it is hard to say what, exactly, is or constitutes intelligence. This difficulty makes it impossible to measure human intelligence against artificial intelligence on a unique scale. It does not, however, prevent us from comparing them; rather, it changes the sense and meaning of such comparisons. Comparing artificial intelligence with human intelligence could allow us to understand both forms better. This paper thus aims to compare and distinguish these two forms of intelligence, focusing on three issues: forms of embodiment, autonomy and judgment. Doing so, I argue, should enable us to have a better view of the promises and limitations of present-day artificial intelligence, along with its benefits and dangers and the place we should make for it in our culture and society.


Cite this article

Dumouchel, Paul. “Intelligence, Artificial and Otherwise.” Forum Philosophicum 24, no. 2 (2019): 241–58. doi:10.35765/forphil.2019.2402.11.


Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Barrat, James, R. Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era. New York, NY: Dunne/St. Martin, 2015.

Bongard, Josh, and Rolf Pfeifer. How the Body Shapes the Way We Think. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

Bostrom, Nick. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford: OUP, 2014.

Chemero, Anthony. Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Dick, Phillip, K. The Minority Report. London: Gollancz, 2002.

Dumouchel, Paul. “Philosophy and the Politics of Moral Machines”. Journal of AI Humanities (forthcoming).

Dumouchel, Paul, and Luisa Damiano. Living with Robots. Translated by Malcolm DeBevoise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Eubanks, Virginia. Automating Inequality. New York: St-Martin Press, 2017.

Ferrara, Alessandro. The Force of the Example. Explorations in the Paradigm of Judgment. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel. Le mythe de la singularité. Paris: Seuil, 2017.

Guay, Alexandre, and Thomas Pradeu, eds. Individuals across the Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Hildebrandt, Mireille. Smart Technologies and the End(s) of Law. London: Edward Elgar, 2015.

Nagel, Thomas. The View from Nowhere. Oxford: OUP, 1986.

O’Neil, Cathy. Weapons of Math Destruction. New York: Crown, 2016.

Pfeifer, Rolf, and Josh Bongard. How the Body Shapes the Way We Think. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

Raz, Joseph. The Morality of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Sen, Amartya. The Idea of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Shen, Guohua, Tomoyasu Horikawa, Kei Majima, and Yukiyasu Kamitani. “Deep Images Reconstruction from Human Brain Activity.” bioRxiv. Accessed October 1, 2019.

Stewart, James, Olivier, Gapenne, and Ezequiel, A. Di Paolo. Enaction. Towards a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.

Vidal, Fernando, and Francisco, Ortega. Being Brains. Making the Cerebral Subject. New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 2017.