Leslie Armour

Morality and The Three-fold Existence of God

Article
17/1 - Spring 2012, pages 27–47
Date of online publication: 04 juin 2012
Date of publication: 04 juin 2012

Abstract

Arguments about the existence of a being who is infinite and perfect involve claims about a being who must appear in all the orders and dimensions of reality. Anything else implies finitude. Ideas about goodness seem inseparable from arguments about the existence of God and Kant's claim that such arguments ultimately belong to moral theology seems plausible. The claim that we can rely on the postulates of pure practical reason is stronger than many suppose. But one must show that a being who is infinite and perfect is even possible, and any such being must be present in the physical world as well as in what Pascal called the orders of the intellect and morality (which he called the order of charity). Indeed, locating God in the various orders without creating conflicts is problematic. Such arguments are necessarily difficult and sometimes self-defeating but I argue in this paper that there is a promising path.

Keywords

Cite this article

Armour, Leslie. “Morality and The Three-fold Existence of God.” Forum Philosophicum 17, no. 1 (2012): 27–47. doi:10.5840/forphil20121712.

Bibliography

Armour, Leslie. “Anselm’s Proof and Some Problems of Meaning and Reference.” In God and Argument / Dieu et argumentation philosophique, edited by William Sweet, 97–114. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999.

Armour, Leslie. Being and Idea, Developments of Some Themes in Spinoza and Hegel. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1992.

Armour, Leslie. Infini Rien: Pascal’s Wager and the Human Paradox. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press for the Journal of the History of Philosophy Monograph Series, 1993; South Bend IN: St. Augustine’s Press, 2006.

Armour, Leslie. Logic and Reality. Assen: Royal Van Gorcum; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1972.

Armour, Leslie. The Rational and the Real. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1962.

Brightman, Edgar Sheffield. A Philosophy of Religion. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1947.

Buckham, John Wright, and George Malcolm Stratton. George Holmes Howison, Philosopher and Teacher: A Selection from His Writings with a Biographical Sketch. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1934.

Cross, Richard. Duns Scotus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Friedlander, Gerald. Hellenism and Christianity. London: P. Vallentine & Sons, 1912.

Goldman, Lucien. Le Dieu caché. Paris: Gallimard, 1956.

Joad, C. E. M. God and Evil. London: Faber and Faber, 1942.

Johnson, William Ernst. Logic. Cambridge: the University Press, 1921.

Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Practical Reason. Translated by Lewis White Beck. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1956.

Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith. London: Macmillan, 1929.

Kant, Immanuel. What Does it Mean: To Orient Oneself in thinking? Translated by Gabriele Rabel. In Gabriele Rabel, Kant, 168–170. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.

Kant, Immanuel. Was heißt: Sich im Denken Orientieren? In Kants Werke: Band VIII: Abhandlungen nach 1781, vol. 8 of Kants Gesammelte Schriften, edited by Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 131–147. Berlin: W. de Gruyter 1923. Reprinted Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter 1969.

Maritain, Jacques. The Range of Reason. New York: Scribner, 1952.

Pascal, Blaise. Pensées. Edited by Roger Ariew. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2005.

Pascal, Blaise. Pensées: Notes on Religion and Other Subjects. Edited by John Warrington. London: J.M. Dent; New York: Dutton, 1960.

Ross, James F. “Being Certain About the Existence of God.” In God and Argument / Dieu et argumentation philosophique, edited by William Sweet, 28–29. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999.

Sweet, William, ed. God and Argument / Dieu et argumentation philosophique. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999.

Watson, John. Christianity and Idealism. New York: Macmillan, 1897.

Wicki, Nicolas, ed. Philippi Cancellarii Summa De Bono. Berne: Francke, 1985.

Yves de Paris. Digestium Sapientiae. Paris: Thierry, 1648–1654.

Yves de Paris. La théologie naturelle. Paris: Buon, 1633.

Copyright

© Forum Philosophicum